**Mathematical Approach to Maximizing DPS or Heals for Any Class**

Hi all. This is Djazlaan. Played RO 3 months on the China server (Equinox guild), and I’ve been playing on NA since early access. I do engineering irl, so calculations is what I do (among other things :P).

I’ll get straight to the point. There are two parts to this thread. The first post is a guide giving insight, using a mathematical approach, on how the different stats in RO really work. The second post contains the download link and describes how to use the calculator I’ve developed in order to calculate how exactly you are supposed to maximize your damage or heals. I chose to make a calculator because the game is so complex that it cannot be simplified into just a few guidelines.

Just 2 pointers though.

– I will call gunslingers and occultists the “dex classes” because their dexterity works differently from the other classes.

– I will take physical-based classes as the main reference, but what I say still hold for magic-based classes.

I wrote the magic version of the stats is the square brackets [].

So without further ado…

**THE STAT GUIDE**

**The Attributes Involved in Damage**

Out of the 5 attributes, only 2 of them are involved in damage.

- Strength [or Intelligence]. Each point gives 1
*physical damage*and every 10 points gives 4*Force.* - Dexterity. Each point gives 2
*crit.*

For Dex classes:

- Strength [or Intelligence]. Each point gives 1
*physical damage**.* - Dexterity. Each point gives 1
*crit*and*physical damage*, and every 10 points gives 4*Force*.

**Calculating Final Damage Done**

Final Damage is my own term, not found in the game. With it I mean the damage you output at the last stage, before it gets reduced by the enemy’s defense stats. It takes crit into account.

- Final Damage. = Physical Damage * (1 + Crit Rate* Crit Damage)
- Physical Damage [or Magic Damage]. = Physical Attack * (1 + Force/100) + Additional Damage
- Physical Attack [or Magic Attack]. The total sum of damage generated by your gear, and only your gear.
- Additional Damage. The total sum of damage generated by sources other than your gear, including attributes.
- Additional Damage = 1 * Strength + (gear bonuses) + (soul grid bonuses) + (guild bonuses) + (amulet rune effects)
- Force [or Zeal]. As seen in the formula, 1
*force*will increase your*physical damage*by 1% of your*physical attack*. It is NOT a 1% gain of your*physical damage.*There is a big difference there.

For Dex classes:

- Additional Damage = 1 * Strength + 0.5 * Dexterity+ (gear bonuses) + (soul grid bonuses) + (guild bonuses) + (amulet rune effects)

**The Attributes Involved in Heals**

Out of the 5 attributes, 3 of them are involved in healing:

- Intelligence. Each point gives 0.6 points of
*Additional Healing*. - Spirit. Each point gives 1.6 points of
*Additional Healing*. - Dexterity
**.**Each point gives 2*crit.*

For Dex classes (only occultist really):

- Intelligence. Does NOT add to healing.
- Spirit. Each point gives 1.6 points of
*Additional Healing*. - Dexterity
**.**Each point gives 1*crit.*

Note that the Zeal stat that every 10 Intelligence is supposed to give **does not** add to healing.

**Calculating Final Heals Done**

Again, Final Healing is my own term, not found in the game. With it I mean the heals you output at the last stage. It takes crit into account.

- Final Healing. = Healing * (1 + Crit Rate* Crit Damage)
- Healing. = 0.4 * Magic Attack + Additional Healing
- Magic Attack. The total sum of damage generated by your gear, and only your gear.
- Additional Healing. The total sum of heals generated by sources other than your gear, including attributes.
- Additional Healing = 0.6 * Intelligence + 1.6 * Spirit + (gear bonuses) + (soul grid bonuses) + (guild bonuses) + (amulet rune effects)

For Dex classes (only occultist really):

- Additional Healing =1.6 * Spirit + (gear bonuses) + (soul grid bonuses) + (guild bonuses) + (amulet rune effects)

Do note that there seems to currently be a bug with the “additional healing” stat not showing the correct number in game. A few people, including me, are still investigating this strange phenomena (Bug? Less healing power than i should have.). This happens even on China servers. What is clear right now is that intelligence is the cause. It gives less than 0.6 heals per int. It gets to even lower ratios the more int you have.

**Crit Chance and Crit Damage**

This part is probably obvious, but I’m writing it nonetheless.

- Crit Rate. Each crit gives a certain amount of crit rate %. Higher values increases your chance to crit.
- Crit Damage. Each crit increment gives a certain amount of crit damage %. Higher values increases the additional damage (or heals) your crits do. Note that the minimum is 50% (at 0 crit increment) and the maximum is capped at 200%.

Note that the ratios of crit rate per crit and crit damage per crit incement depends on level. Read the next section for details on that.

**Diminishing Return on Stats**

Now here comes the section of my findings that is a little harder to come by. Basically, there is a diminishing returns on nearly all stats that give a % of anything. But some stats have a compounded diminishing returns going for them. Let me explain…

*Character Level Diminishing Returns.*

There are ton of what I like to call “level % stats”. Stats that have as their output a % value, and state in their tooltip that this %** only counts for targets of the same level**. Examples of these “level % stats” is Crit, Crit Increment, physical defense stats, magic defense stats, hit rate, dodge rate, ect. The ratio between the stat value and the % worsens the higher the level of your character is. For example, at level 59, 100 crit gives a crit chance of 4.168%, while at level 79, 100 crit gives a crit chance of 3.175%. **Force, Zeal, Persistence, and Tolerance do NOT display this kind of behavior**.

*Stat Amount Diminishing Returns.*

This is the traditional one. The more you have of the stat, the less valuable an additional point it will be. For example, 1550 points of defense gives 31.5% damage reduction, but 5250 points in defense is needed for a 61% damage reduction. So you need more than triple the defense to get double the damage reduction. The stats that display this kind of diminishing returns are the defense stats (i.e. physical and magic defense stats, as well as the pve and pvp gem defense stats). **Attack stats do NOT display this kind of behavior.**

*Compounded Diminishing Returns.*

As you might have already noticed, these defense stats that suffer from the “stat amount diminishing returns” also suffer from the “character level diminishing returns”. In such a way, these stats experience a compounded diminishing returns.

**A Note on PvE and PvP Gems**

Attack gems suffer only from the “character level diminishing returns”, but defense gems suffer from both (compounded). This makes it theoretically easier to build a glass cannon than a tanky character. Also, the “stat amount diminishing returns” effect is less on the defense gems compared to the physical or magical defense stats. 400 PvE defense results in 11.5% PvE damage reduction, while 900 PvE defense is needed for a 23% in PvE damage reduction. The diminishing returns is a lot less severe than the example shown 2 paragraphs earlier. This means that investing in more and better gems is a very good idea indeed.

**A Note on Defense**

There is a reason I have not gone into defense yet for most of my calculations. This is simply because how much defense you need is subjective. Do you want to play as a glass cannon? Or are you the careful type and want to survive through the hard times? Based on your play style, your required defense will differ. For example, I, as an SS, have almost half the defense when I go DPS mode as opposed to healing mode. One thing is for sure though. Melee classes need more defense.